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Tips for Unleashing Your Creativity at Work

Tips for Unleashing Your Creativity at Work

Innovation is the lifeblood of any successful company today. For many companies, however, the pursuit of innovative ideas is missing a key element  (something typically not associated with business professionals): creativity.

Nurturing your creative self is the only way to truly unlock your strategic mind and bring your business skills to bear in new, meaningful ways that can benefit your entire organization. Here are 10 tips to help you unlock your creativity at work:

1. Get visual. Regardless of your role, industry or responsibilities, visualizing data and ideas is an incredibly powerful tool to get your team thinking. Get off the phone, go in a room together (a virtual room will work, too) and use a whiteboard until your hand hurts.

2. Throw out the rule book. The next time you get your team together to brainstorm, create and enforce a “no holds barred” idea session. Nothing is off the table; nothing is outside the realm of possibility. Avoid words and phrases like “but,” “how would we” and “we can’t.” If necessary, designate someone to police those phrases and keep everyone honest.

3. Work backward. Figure the goal or ideal scenario 10 to 15 years down the road. Start there and work your way backward. Don’t worry about the “how.” Focus on the “what.” Your road map will literally unfold itself.

How I can earn as much money as possible with a blog

How I can earn as much money as possible with a blog

We’ll be honest: blogging isn’t the easiest way to make money. But, the great thing is that anyone can do it, and it looks amazing on your CV.

All you need is something interesting to say and enough patience and dedication to build traffic and a following. But how do successful bloggers make their money? We’ve interviewed a couple of them to reveal their monetisation secrets.

Our guide gives you a concrete action plan to get your blog off the ground and grow it into a profitable little business from home.

Getting started with blogging can seem like a bit of a minefield, particularly if you don’t have much tech knowledge.

You have two main options when it comes to actually setting up a blog – you can use a free blogging platform, or you can create your own website. We’ll take you through both, and outline their pros and cons, so you can make the right decision for you and your blog.

  1. Free blogging platforms

    Jim Carrey Bruce Almighty typing fast

    Credit: Universal Pictures

    Best for: Casual bloggers and those not interested in making money from their blog.

    Pros: Super easy to set up and completely free.

    Cons: Limits on customisation and video/image uploads, you often can’t place adverts or use affiliate links, you can’t create a custom URL and the platform retains the right to delete your blog.

    A lot of platforms will allow you to set up a blog for free, and they’re super easy to use. If you’re just wanting to blog casually at first, this could suit you well.

    But, free blogging platforms can be very limiting. You’ll only be able to customise to a limited extent, and your blog will have a storage limit which could make it harder to upload large videos and images.

    Another drawback is that your blog URL will be something like ‘’ with the platform branding.

    Most free blogging platforms also don’t allow you to place banner adverts or affiliate links on your site, which are key revenue streams for most bloggers.

    However, if these things don’t bother you, here’s a quick rundown of the best free online blogging platforms.

    Best blogging sites

    •  This is a free basic blog hosting service that’s easy to use. You’ll have to put up with WordPress ads and branding unless you pay a monthly fee, and you can’t put ads on your site. There are also limited options for customisation and expansion.
    • Blogger  Google’s free blog hosting service, Blogger, is really simple to use. But, the customisation and design options are very limited, and there aren’t a lot of options if you want to add new features.
    • Medium  With Medium, the emphasis is on the writing rather than design, and it’s used by lots of journalists, writers and experts. It’s a great way to share your work with a particular community, but you can’t run any ads and it’s difficult to create your own personal branding.
  2. Create your own website

    dog on computer

    Credit: Kalamurzing – Shutterstock

    Best for: Dedicated bloggers and those looking to make money from their blog

    Pros: Complete control over design and customisation, your own custom URL and the ability to use adverts and affiliate links how you like

    Cons: You’ll have to pay – firstly for your domain name (URL) and then for hosting, but we’ve got tips on keeping costs low.

    If you’re not particularly tech-savvy, the thought of creating your own website might seem quite scary – but it’s actually pretty easy to do, and you can create one in just 20 minutes.

    Save the Student’s founder, Owen, has written an easy-to-follow, step-by-step guide to show you how to start a website.

    With your own website, you’ll be able to create unique personal branding (with your own URL), and there’s no risk of your blog being deleted by the platform – you’ll own the site and be in complete control.

    WordPress has an insane amount of templates or ‘themes’ for you to choose from – take your time to decide on one which suits both your personality and the topic of your blog.

    Opt for something clear and simple, with space for large images and easy-to-read fonts (Comic Sans and Courier fonts are no-nos).

    Create your own website »

How to choose a blog topic

jd scrubs thinking

Credit: ABC

This can either be the easiest or the hardest part of starting your blog.

The most important thing at this stage is to choose a niche which you can call yourself an authority in – the biggest mistake new bloggers make in such a crowded blogosphere is starting a blog without trying to do something surprising or different.

For example, if fashion’s your thing, instead of combining generic fashion content, you could combine your love for clothes with your big-hearted concern for the environment by blogging about environmentally-conscious designers instead?

These are the best ways to find a topic for your new blog:

  1. Look at other blogs  This should be your first port of call. What’s already successful? And more importantly, what’s missing? Find the gaps in the market.
  2. Use Google  What are people searching for? Use Google suggested searches and auto-complete to discover what people are looking for – if they’re searching for it, that shows there’s a demand.
  3. Search forums for common FAQs – When people can’t find answers to their questions, they go to forums. What are they asking? What do they need advice on? This will show what people are interested in and what there’s a lack of available information on.
  4. Track current trends – What topics are in the media right now? It’s good to pick a topic with longevity, but if you can piggy-back on a trend early on, you can quickly establish yourself as an expert on it before anyone else. Searching #journorequest on Twitter shows what kind of themes journalists are currently reporting on.
  5. Think about different types of content – Could you do tutorials/how-to guides? Reviews? Interviews? Lists? It might not be what you write about, but how you write which sets you apart.
  6. Identify your own interests and passions – While all of the above are important, there’s no point in blogging about something you have zero interest in. You’ll quickly get bored and people will spot your lack of enthusiasm. Write about something you really, truly care about.
Check out our extensive list of business ideas for you to try at university – get your entrepreneurial juices flowing and bring in some cash!

How to increase your blog traffic

Once you’ve created your website, come up with a kick-ass blog topic and you’ve published your first posts, the big question is – where are all the readers?

You can’t just expect people to magically find your blog and start reading it. You have to promote it!

Here are the best and easiest ways to get more readers for your blog:

  1. Promote your blog on social media

    Simon Cowell thumbs up

    Credit: NBC

    As with any business nowadays, you’re not likely to get noticed if you don’t have social media accounts.

    We recommend setting up pages/accounts for your blog on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat and even LinkedIn (you’re essentially your own business anyway, right?). Design these accounts in a similar colour scheme/theme to your blog so your brand is consistent and easily recognisable.

    Use them to share new posts and tag fellow bloggers/influencers/companies who might share your content and help it to reach an even bigger audience.

    You could also dabble in some paid advertising to help your blog reach a wider audience, or run a competition to generate more likes. Once you’ve got the followers, keep them interested by posting on a regular basis (not just for new blog posts).

  2. Connect with other bloggers

    Make yourself known to other people who blog about similar topics. Despite the fact you’re technically a competitor, you’re likely to be pleasantly surprised by how supportive the blogger community can be.

    Many bloggers even have a ‘links’ page on their site which they use to link to loads of their friends within the community in return for a link on your own blog. This will help massively with your SEO (that’s search engine optimisation – how likely your blog is to pop up in Google searches).

    If you engage with other bloggers and share their content, they’ll likely return the favour – you could even work on some collaborations!

  3. Respond to news stories on your blog

    Harry Potter Daily Prophet newspaper

    Credit: Warner Bros

    If something happens in the news which is related to your niche, get involved. This is what we refer to as ‘newsjacking‘ and it can work a treat for getting you some great exposure.

    For example, if you blog about cheap student cooking, keep an eye out for things like the reveal of our latest Student Money Survey. Students might spend an average of £100 a month on groceries, but you can tell them how to spend less (while eating better food!).

    You can get on social media to say your bit with relevant hashtags, get involved in discussions and even reach out to journalists to say you’re available for comment.

    If you’re really great at owning your niche, journalists might even come to you.

  4. Create viral content

    Creating viral content will help you reach a new market and, in turn, increase your readership.

    This might be easier said than done, but the key to creating viral content is to tap into controversial or highly-discussed topics related to your niche blogging field – as you can imagine, this often involves newsjacking, as mentioned above.

    As this is your niche, you’ll be passionate, opinionated and knowledgable about it, so you’ll be able to post an opinion that people want to read, share and talk about.

How to make money from blogging

Once you’ve got your blog up and running, you can (finally!) start looking into ways to make a profit from it.

These are the best and easiest ways to make money as a blogger:

  1. Use affiliate marketing on your blog

    man working on phone in cafe

    Credit: Tong_stocker – Shutterstock

    Affiliate marketing works by adding tracked affiliate links into the text of your blog. You can make a small commission every time a reader clicks through to a site you recommend and makes a purchase.

    The links will lead readers to the website of a brand, and the money you receive is to say ‘thanks’ for sending some of your lovely readers to their site.

    Almost all online eCommerce websites have an affiliate program of some sort, like Amazon, Topshop, ASOS and Apple.

    Sign up to Affiliate Window – a huge affiliate network where you can promote thousands of well-known brands and services from around the world.

    Money-saving blogger, Claire Roach from MoneySavingCentral, revealed:

How you could use LinkedIn to earn money with a website.

How you could use LinkedIn to earn money with a website.

LinkedIn, the world’s largest professional and job searching social media portal is a staple source for nearly 610 million registered users across 200 countries. The portal does half of the work to people by dropping posts for job seekers or employee finders and other professional constitutions to earn money.

The social networking sites, including LinkedIn, is not all about uploading pictures or videos or maybe some other casual stuff. You can do and create many goggling works if you are a computer nerd who understands the importance and hints of the networking sites.

Some of the users have a habit of looking at LinkedIn only for a job dealing motive. Stuffing your online resume is just a 30 percent work what you are doing. If we look at the brighter picture, LinkedIn is also the best way to earn money professionally.

Many of them published some 13-40 ways to pocket money via LinkedIn. But after searching and refining the professional ideas, we got the finest and absolute 10 methods that work through the platform.

10 Professional Ways To Earn Money Through LinkedIn

1. Join or Create LinkedIn groups

Create or join the LinkedIn groups of your interests. If a registered user wants to create a group can call interested or relevant members through email templates. Grow your mailing by using announcements, webinars, or free content giveaways.

The joining of a group helps you to extend your network professionally. Your profile will appear at the right sidebar with the group member profiles. With this, it will make a better exposure to you to find a professionally relevant job by earning money.

2. Sign up in LinkedIn Profinder

LinkedIn Profinder is a professional service marketplace to find the best freelancing and independent jobs. All you need is to get registered in it, and you can find a slew of jobs from people in search of expertise. Generally, this is the second best way to earn money, even as a moonlighting job.

ALSO READ  3 Amazing Tools to Find Out Relevant Hashtags for Your Business

The service is free unless you want to get more than five job updates in a month which must be paid for LinkedIn premium. From coaches to writers, IT services and more every category is made avail to earn.

3. Revamp your profile

Nearly 80% of the registered members forget to update their LinkedIn profile. It is suggestible to update your profile page with the work experience or education profile. This is the specific platform where you need to update or fill the complete profile to get updates from the similar job pages that you are interested in.

This is a kind of a miss not to get updates from companies, and eventually chance to earn money gets a little scope.

4. Use products sections to sell products

For businesses looking to sell their physical or digital products, LinkedIn offers a great chance to earn money via the products section.

Create individual product listings in the products section of your company’s page. It’s got features like banner visitors can click on your landing pages, YouTube commercials, and contact details. You can also encourage people to write reviews or any recommendations to the products by adding a recommend button. You can also discuss in the groups you created or joined to most likely selling your products where people may find interesting to buy them. It even not appears like a sale pitch.

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5. A professional headshot

The one thing that attracts people to your page is because of your profile and a photo of yours. The professional headshot to your profile is a deal. Users receive 20 times more profile views and more messages with many eyeballs on your photo. Cropped photos from a bunch of parties you went with the friends or from a wedding reception will not boost your professional image.

You might think it is okay, adding some casual pictures. Image a financial adviser uploads a blurred selfie as their photo, would you trust them? This is also the same. So take a professional headshot picture to find a better job.

6. Upload Videos directly to LinkedIn

LinkedIn rewards people with more video views when a video is directly uploaded on the platform with its algorithm. By contrast, sharing link from YouTube or the other means can depress the algorithm reach.

LinkedIn videos can be of 10 minutes, but it is advisable to keep it short and precise, so viewers find it interesting. More chances or view and money are possible with the videos to include- tips, how-to, breaking news from industry, and opinions.

7. Content never withers

Even though it is a social media platform, a little touch of content on your LinkedIn page can make you earn cash. How? LinkedIn rewards with more visibility when you write content or articles on its platform. It even betters the reader data by positioning you as a subject-matter expert- by tapping on “Me” in the application. Real-time insights are projected into who’s reading your content along with the employers, job titles, and locations.

8. #motivation LinkedIn

Hashtags are mandate in all existing social channels. From a common man to big brands, everyone uses hashtags to get noticed. Well, for LinkedIn, Hashtags works differently than Twitter, Instagram, or Facebook.

ALSO READ  8 Simple Tips for Social Media Competitive Analysis

Recently, LinkedIn started encouraging users to join hashtag communities with people with personal growth subjects and core business where you can share content by adding these hashtags to reach exponentially. Today #motivation has nearly 12 million followers.

Sounds interesting — the other best coming through to earn money.

9. Through LinkedIn Advertising

Got some bucks, then invest in LinkedIn Advertising to earn more income.

Create an ad campaign to promote the free giveaway by using the targeting options to get users attention. You can even create an ad campaign focused on target demographics for your product. This will help them to get curious to know more about the free giveaways and pushes people to go the limited offers and grab them. Including discount codes can also help you to reach your target.

10. Encourage Affiliating market or products

Affiliate marketing is the ultimate source to earn money. It generates income online and can write great reviews. There are so many benefits if you promote those on LinkedIn to boost your affiliate sales. You can share your affiliate marketing review posts within groups. Even you can email them about it on your blog so that they might find interesting in any new product launch, limited time offers, and discount codes.

That’s all folks! My version of thoughts on earning money through LinkedIn- Researched and Redefined. If you have any opinions on how to earn money via LinkedIn, do share with us.

10 tips for a very successful video.

10 tips for a very successful video.

With the continued rise of the video blogging culture, it’s completely understandable for any tech-savvy millennial or young adult to be enticed by the idea of starting a YouTube channel. After all, it’s a fun and interactive hobby with the potential to turn you into a popular online personality—with the added benefit of helping you meet new people, get free stuff from companies, and of course, earn a pretty impressive income.

But if you want to gain a steady increase in followers or at least publish decent content that get a good number of views and likes, you’ll need to do more than just become a contributing member on YouTube. Here are a couple of helpful tips to ensure that you make the most out of your venture into the world of vlogging and content creation.

Woman recording a makeup video for her YouTube channel
Image via Shutterstock

Here are a few tips for starting a successful YouTube channel:

Plan Your Content

Before even creating your YouTube channel, you’ve probably already decided on the kind of video content that you want to show. The best ways to increase your views and gain followers is still to keep your content interesting and engaging; the more people can relate to it, the more they’ll want to click on it and watch until the end.

Woman thinking of ideas for her YouTube channel
Image via Shutterstock

It also helps to stick to your theme, if you have one. For example, many successful YouTubers have dedicated channels for travel, tutorials, or their daily lives. Viewers like living vicariously through the people they watch, so let them know what they can expect and deliver interesting material that they can enjoy.

Arm Yourself with the Right Equipment

Using your smartphone is certainly an acceptable way to record videos, but if you want viewers to enjoy your content, it really helps to invest in the right equipment. Most YouTubers use DSLRs or mirrorless cameras, along with other essential accessories for videography such as tripods, lenses, and studio lighting. For those who normally vlog on-the-go, a mirrorless or action camera and a good monopod or handheld gimbal stabilizer are typical gear staples.

Flatlay image of essential gear for videography
Image via Shutterstock

Remember, though, that a good vlogging camera is not everything. If you neglect other things like audio quality and lighting, your viewers may still lose interest in your videos after the first few seconds and won’t subscribe to you at all.

Invest in a good microphone that you can mount on your camera. At the same time, mind your recording conditions and make it a habit to check if your audio is clear enough for your viewers to understand. For best results, use a shotgun microphone that’s designed to pick up sound mostly from the front so noise from the sides and behind the mic can be canceled out. Some vloggers even go as far as to invest in multiple microphones for different recording situations—you may require a lavalier mic (small microphones that can be pinned to your shirt) for shooting fitness videos or any other type of video that requires you to be far away from the camera, or a good condenser mic (or any mic that is commonly used for podcasting) that will allow you to do clear voice-overs.

Look for Inspiration

As you go along, it may be more challenging to come up with fresh, new content that will match the hype of your first few videos. But don’t worry—even established YouTube artists go through the same thing every once in a while. The secret is to look for inspiration everywhere—even when you’re out and taking a break from recording. List down your ideas. Check out other videos and build upon their ideas to make them your own.

Woman watching a travel vlog on a tablet
Image via Shutterstock

Avoid comparing yourself to others and focus on your own channel. As long as you like and enjoy the concepts you come up with, your viewers will sense your sincerity and love for your craft, and this will help pique their interest. While you’re at it, take every opportunity to improve and evolve in other areas. Explore other camera filming techniques, editing styles, and approaches to your presentation.

Make Every Second Count

It’s equally important that you produce quality content and delete anything that you think may not contribute to making your videos better. This means that you need to be selective with the clips you include in the final cut. Choose only your best shots (and clip out moments of dead air) to keep your viewers interested and engaged throughout your entire video.

Man filming a laptop review video for his YouTube channel
Image via Shutterstock

Once you’ve amassed a bigger following, you may have a little more freedom to include a few of those artsy (or nonsensical) shots, but always remember to think like a viewer and create what you would want to see.

Start with Simple Editing Software

Just because you’re creating videos doesn’t mean you need advanced software (like Final Cut Pro) to edit your content. These software programs don’t necessarily improve your content, particularly if you’re going to be struggling with it a lot during the first few weeks.

Woman editing a video for her YouTube channel on a laptop
Image via Shutterstock

If you’re new to video editing, you’d do much better with simple programs like Windows Movie Maker or Apple iMovie. These are a lot more user-friendly and are easily downloadable (for free), if you don’t already have them on your computer.

Optimize Your Videos

Another secret to giving your videos more visibility is to optimize your content to help it rank on YouTube. As soon as you upload your first video, give it a good, descriptive title that viewers are likely to write on the search bar—and make sure to include your main keyword or key phrase. For example, the title “Hawaii Birthday Travel Vlog 2018” is much better than “Hawaii Here We Go!”

laptop with picture of a woman and beauty related graphics
Image via Shutterstock

Also, make sure to use relevant tags that will help put your video under multiple related categories. When in doubt, scope out the competition and check what tags other similar videos are using. Finally, write a good description with at least 200 words, and include your target keywords, synonyms, and long-tail keyword variations. Not only will this help viewers figure out exactly what your video is about, it will also help your video rank in search engine results pages.

Build Your Network

While not necessarily categorized as a social networking site, YouTube is all about connecting, sharing, and collaborating with other users. Thus, to be successful, you need to make an effort to build your network. This is particularly critical in the YouTube community, as collaborations among creators have proven effective in helping a channel grow and gain new subscribers because it helps both collaborators gain exposure with the other’s subscriber base.

Two women filming a video for YouTube
Image via Shutterstock

Talk to other creators, make friends, and don’t be afraid to contact larger YouTubers to inquire about a possible collaboration. It can certainly be intimidating, but you won’t get anywhere unless you try!

Connect with Your Viewers

Over time, you’ll slowly gain followers and get more comments from fans on your videos, and eventually, you’ll get messages on your personal social media accounts—you may even get some fan mail, should you decide to share your P.O. box. As much as possible, make time to connect with your viewers. Remember that your social media accounts are an extension of your YouTube channel, so try to share tidbits of your life on popular social platforms like Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat. It’s also important that you try to read and respond to all the tweets, comments, and any other messages you get (as much as you are able).

Man smiling while chatting on his laptop
Image via Shutterstock

Such interactions are important as they help your subscribers learn more about you, plus it can help you foster a sense of community and online camaraderie among your own little community. It’s not enough that they like your content—they have to like you and their overall experience with your channel as well.

Interacting with your viewers can also help you gain inspiration for new content ideas. And at the very least, it will keep you inspired to go on despite the difficulties of growing and sustaining your channel.

Ignore All the Negative Comments

No matter how big or how small your channel is, there will always be negative comments. After all, YouTube is a hotbed for ruthless people hiding conveniently behind their blank avatars. No matter good your content is and how hard you work on your channel, there will always be people who will make hateful comments and try to bring you down.

Woman reading hate comments on her phone
Image via Shutterstock

Instead of letting them affect you, take it as a simple reminder that you can’t please everyone, and don’t forget those who appreciate you and what you do. Seek strength from these people in order to move past the negativity and continue producing content for them.

Upload Videos Regularly

Another important tip is to be consistent with your uploads. No matter how imperfect you think your content is, it’s important that you keep getting your videos out there, as it is with podcasting.

Woman recording a fashion haul video for her YouTube channel

Some YouTube channel owners publish videos once or twice a week and they let their viewers know about this schedule (usually at the end of each video) so viewers know when to check back. This gives a channel a bigger chance of getting a steady flow of views, especially once it gains a number of active subscribers. Once you figure out a convenient schedule that works for you, stick to it. You should be improving and getting more attention in no time!

Top 10 Sources of Income for Public Communities

Top 10 Sources of Income for Public Communities

In the last article of “Increasing income” series you read Anupam’s real life sharing about how he created his second income (we thank him for sharing his experience with our readers). Today let’s go a little deeper and learn ways by which YOU can also create passive income stream, which means ways of income where you do not work actively and still the income is generated.

We can see that a lot of you are interested in creating passive income but you don’t know from where to start, so after reading today’s article take at least one committed step to create second source of income in your life. After you complete reading today’ article, in comments section share at least one new idea for creating passive income.

We are a community of 50k+ people at jagoinvestor, if we all share one good idea for creating passive income, imagine what kind of passive income idea bank we will be able to create.

The rich get richer. Not only because they have surpluses with which to invest, but because of the overriding emotional release they experience from having wealth

– Stuart Wilde

I really want you to take a day off from your routine life and name the day as “PI day” of your life. On this day, you won’t touch upon any other area of your life,you will only think about creating passive income and nothing else. As next step create a special kind of account in your life called “P I income account”, in this account you will accumulate passive income, it should not come from real work or from active job. Passive income is the kind of income where either your money works for you or your people work for you.

10 ways to create passive income

(Do not discard ideas instead start thinking how the ideas can get into your life)

1. Rental Income from Real Estate

You can create rental income with the help of real estate. If you have more than two properties, the rent you get from one can help you to pay the EMI of other property you own. You can give your office space on rent or your second house on rent. You can also create either boys or girls hostel, if you have more than 1 flat on the same floor. Some even create small office units in one big commercial space and they give it on rent to people who do not have frequent visitors.

Make sure that you are selecting right people and legal aspect is taken care of. If someone (only if you are the owner) has good office space in Pune, we would like to touch base with you. (In 2015 we would like to establish jagoinvestor office in the city of Pune).

2. Buying Space for ATM Centre

This is one of the best ways to create passive income. Generally in a building, the space which is below the stairs gets sold at lower rate as compared to other offices and it is ideal place for ATM Centre. Banks can even pay upto 25k-50k per month to ATM centre owners in big cities, but again it depends on the location and the area where you own your space. There is a detailed discussion on this topic here

3. Buy extra Parking lots and renting it later

Parking is one of the biggest problem that everyone is facing today. One of our clients created passive income from the parking space that he owns in his building. Also I know someone who owns open plot next to a multiplex; he gave his space on rent to multiplex for parking purpose. This may not be possible for all but as I said do not discard ideas from your life.

4. Create Websites & Blogs

The machine age is over and we now leave and breathe inside information age, where no one cares where your office is or how many people staff you have, with the help of internet from a remote place you can create a lot of money. Creating a blog or a website is almost free (or I can say it is not very expensive) and is one of the best ways to create passive income.

You can do this as a part time activity and start creating second income in your life. This may be a slow process and it calls for good content for you to attract people to your blog or website. Jagoinvestor as a blog started very small and with the love and trust of our readers it has now created a special space in investor’s community.

5. Advertisement hoarding on your building and terrace

If your building is on main road with proper visibility you can put some banners or hoarding on the terrace of your building or even in garden or open space of your building. If you own terrace rights the money will come to you otherwise, it goes to society kitty as passive income. Some permission & authorization is required to take this step.

6. Interest income from your investments

This is one of the simplest ways to create passive income, which is in everyone’s reach. You can either create interest income through Bank Deposit products or by offering loans to people at attractive interest rate. For this your need cash on hand or pool of money from which you intend to create interest income.

7. Dividends from Stocks and Mutual Funds

You can either receive dividends through Stocks or from different mutual fund schemes. This income depends on the performance of stock and mutual fund which is linked with market conditions. There are many people, I know who create good dividend income from stocks and mutual funds.

8. Royalty Income

Your talent can help you to create passive. You can put something in a book on Amazon Kindle and it can be shared with the world, your book can help you get royalty income. Most people are disconnected with their true talent which is not good for creating second income. You really do not need a publisher you can either self-publish it or get in touch with websites who promote new writers.


We started with one book and now we have four books which are written for investors and advisors, our publisher has already assigned us two more writing assignments.

9. Referral business model

If you are into business you can create a strong referral business model by which your overall business strength increases. Here with the help of referral model not only does your business expands but you also get an opportunity to create passive income as an entrepreneur.

10. Buy cars and give on rent to companies

Many BPO’s and companies hire vehicles on contract. Some people buy vehicles and they offer their vehicles to the company they work with. This helps them to create passive income out of it. Here you need to be careful about the terms and conditions and choosing right driver who will be handling your vehicle on daily basis.

The 10 most important sources of income for shops

The 10 most important sources of income for shops

The following points highlight the ten main sources of income of people in ancient India. The sources are: 1. Agriculture 2. Ownership of Land 3. Revenue 4. Industry 5. The Guilds 6. Trade and Commerce 7. Taxation 8. Other Sources of State Income 9. Forced Labour 10. Foreign Trade.

Source # 1. Agriculture:

Agriculture was the mainstay of the people in ancient India. Naturally, therefore majority of the people lived in villages, where they led an energetic communal life. Most of the villagers tilled their own lands, although the king often claimed ultimate ownership of the lands.

Most of the land holdings were small and worked by the owner with the help of his family. But certain large farmsteads also existed which were cultivated with the help of the hired labour. The king also owned large lands which were culti­vated by the serfs and the labourers in return for a fixed payment. Lands were also lent by the owners to the share-croppers in return for one half of the produce.

As the pressure on land increased people started the policy of colonization, clearing of waste and development of new villages. We learn from the stories in Jataka that hardly peasants from over-popu­lated villages cut jungles and started cultivation. There are instances where the entire village shifted en masse because it could not pay the taxes to the collectors.

Though the rain was the chief source of irrigation, canals, rivers and artificial reservoirs were also formed to ensure regular supply of water to the fields. We do not get any mention of the ‘Persian wheel’, although it might have been used for irrigation pur­poses. The kings considered it their religious and social duty to erect water reservoirs. We know far certain about the reservoirs at Girnar.

This embankment was over 100 feet thick at the base, which subse­quently grumbled. In Kashmir an outstanding engineer named Suyya planned a number of irrigation works in the ninth century A.D. It is said he “made the streams of Indus and Jhelum flow according to his will, like a snake charmer his snakes.”

Although most of the irri­gation works of ancient times have since vanished it can be said that important irrigation works were undertaken in ancient India.


The chief crops of ancient India were wheat, barley, rice, millet, sugarcane, sesamum, large variety of peas, beans and lentils; While barley and. wheat were cultivated in north and other cooler places, rice was cultivated in the irrigated planes. Millet was chiefly grown in those parts of Deccan which were unfit for rice cultivation.

In South India, especially Kerala, large number of spices like pepper, cardamom, ginger, cinnamon a etc. were grown, which were exported to Europe in large quantity. The saffron was mainly produced in the foothills of the Himalayas. Cotton was the most important staple textile crop.

A large variety of fruits were also grown, the most prominent amongst them being the mango. Palmyra and talipot palms were mainly grown in the coastal areas. The date palm was grown in the dry regions of West, but we find little mention of it in literature. The grape, almond and walnut were cultivated in Western Himalayas. South possessed abundance of sandal tree which provided the much prized fragrant woods.

The fertility of the soil has been greatly praised by the Greek travellers. They greatly wondered at the two crops being grown a year. Arthasastra tells us that the use of manure was known to the people. Both heavy and light ploughs were used for cultivation.


While the light ploughs were driven by two or four oxen, the heavy ploughs were driven by as many as twenty four oxen. In Arthasastra we get detailed rules for the management of king’s farms which suggests that well-developed agricultural techniques existed at that time. The harvesting was done with sickles. The corn was thrashed and winnowed by tossing it in the wind.

Cattle breeding was also known to the people. The basic livestock of the peasant were cattle. These were used for ploughing, transport as well as for food. People left sufficient meadows so that the animals could get sufficient food. They also provided necessary sheds for their protection against extreme cold and heat.

The villages employed communal cowherd who drove the cattle to the waste lands beyond the ploughed fields every morning and returned with them at dusk. It was his duty to ensure that they did not enter the fields and destroy the standing harvests.

Cow was considered to be a sacred animal for most of the time in ancient India , and its slaughtering was punished with heavy penalty. However the other animals like cattle; and oxen were killed for food purpose in the later period.

But Arthasastra makes a mention of the existence of herds of aged, diseased and sterile cattle, which shows that they were allowed to die their natural death, at least in certain parts of the country.

The other domestic animals included the buffalo, which was not only a beast of burden but also a favorite item of sacrifices to goddess Durga. In the cooler areas the sheep’s were bred, which were a source of wool, needed for the blankets. These blankets were mainly prepared in Kashmir and were exported to the northern plains. The domestic pig and the goats were also bred.

Horses were chiefly found in Sindh and North-West. They were primarily a luxury animal and were mainly used by the warrior class. People knew about the art of taming the elephants. Usually the elephants were owned by the kings and the chiefs, who employed trackers, hunters and tamers for their capture and care.

We do not get a mention about the camel, but it must have been certainly known to the people, and served as a beast of burden in the deserts. Dogs were also known to the people and were commonly used for hunting purpose. However, in Mahabharata we get a reference that the dogs were treated as a pet.

We are told that the five Pandava brothers and their wife Draupadi took their dog with them on their final pilgrimage to heaven. When the’ dog was not permitted to enter the heaven Yudhisthira refused to enter the heaven without his faithful friend, and ultimately succeeded in taking him along.

The people of ancient India knew about the breeding and rearing of the silkworms. As silk was known to the people even in the Vedic times these silk-making moths were certainty known to the people. Most probably these worms were introduced to India from China.

In one of the Buddhist scriptures silk is designated as cinapatta or the Chinese cloth. In Arthasastra also we get a confirma­tion of this view. Another insect known as lac-insect was also rear­ed. It provided resin used for the various articles of ornaments as well as the dye.

Source # 2. Ownership of Land:

On the basis of the ancient literature and ephigraphic records scholars have drawn opposite conclu­sions regarding the ownership of the land. While one of the verses in the Manusmriti states that the king is the owner of the treasures buried underground, because he is the owner of the land. This suggests that the state owned all land, including the cultivable one.

Similarly, Diodorous has recorded that the land in India is the property of the crown and no private individual is permitted to own it. But certain other scholars, on the testimony of another passage in the Manusmriti have come to the conclusion that private ownership of land existed.

According to this passage a field belonged to him who cleared away the timber and a deer to him who first wounded it with an arrow”. The Nasik caves contained definite record to show that privately owned field was requested for the benefit of ascetics.

We get a definite reference on this point in Purvamimansa which states that a king cannot dispose of the land of private individuals, when he is called upon to gift away all his possessions in charity at the end of certain sacrifices.

Similarly, Narada points out that it would be highly inquisitors if the king proceeded to interfere with the owner­ship and possession of houses and lands, for it would result in utter chaos. Arthasastra also makes a clear distinction between the crown lands and the private lands. One of the Jataka stories records that a king told his mistress that he cannot give her his kingdom because he is not its owner.

The idea of private ownership of land existed as long back as the Rig Vedic period. We get references to show that the arable and homestead land belonged either to an individual or to a family. The pasturage was perhaps common.

In fact we get so diverse re­ferences in ancient literature about the ownership of land that it is difficult to come to any specific conclusion. We get references about individual or family ownership as well as communal and royal ownership of the land. Most probably different systems prevailed in different regions of the country.

The effectiveness of the right of ownership of land depends on the right to gift, sale and mortgage of the land. The ancient legal literature not only contains references about the right of an indivi­dual to alienate the land but there are quite a number of inscriptions which record the gifting of the land by the crown, community and private individuals.

The lands were mostly gifted and we do not get many references about the buying or selling of the land.

How­ever, the Arthasastra has recorded an order of priority in choosing buyers while selling a piece of land. This priority includes kinsmen, neighbours and rich persons. People were free to gift away and mort­gage their lands. We do not get many records of the sale or transfer of land for purposes other than religious purposes. Usually the grants were made to the Brahmans or temples by the ruler or private individuals.

This does not mean that the lands were actually surren­dered to the donee; it simply implied that the taxes payable to the state in cash or kind, were to be paid to the grantee. There are also many instances to show that full ownership rights of the land were transferred to the donee.

Thus Dhruvasena I of Valabhi gave 360 padavartas of land to a temple in his kingdom. This land was not contiguous and was intercepted by land owned by private individuals.

This implies that while certain lands were owned by private indivi­duals or the community, certain other pieces of land were owned by the state. The land owned by the state was described as rajya- vastu, and its ownership acrewed to the state either through failure of heirs or through the non-payment of the land tax.

When the lands were actually transferred to the donee (instead of the revenue) it is not known how they were cultivated. Most probably they were either let out to sub-tenants or cultivated through hired labourers.

Whether these lands were granted on perpetual basis or otherwise, is also not quite clear. Most probably these grants were made on perpetual basis, but the donee had no right of alienation or a per­petual endowment of rent-free land.

According to Dr. A.S. Altekar we “possess conclusive evidence to show that in the post-Buddhist period at any rate the ownership in cultivable lands was vested in private individuals; the state could not interfere with it except for the non-payment of the land-tax. What is claimed from the average cultivator was thus not a land rent but a land tax”.

Another problem connected with the land-ownership in ancient India is whether the people enjoyed occupancy right subject to the pleasure of the king or it existed in the ordinary sense of the term. The scholars have not been able to arrive at any definite conclusion on this point.

One of the passage in the Milindapanha clearly states that all towns, ports, mines etc. which are situated on-the earth are under the ownership of the king. Manu also seems to agree with this view and states that the king is the overlord (adhipati) of the soil.

Though some scholars have contended that this view of Manu conflicts with his precept that the ownership goes to the first cleaner, but Prof. Adiya does not find any conflict between these two views of Manu. He says the ownership of land by private individual has never been an absolute right. The state has always the last say in this matter whatever may have been the position in theory.

Source # 3. Revenue:

The land revenue system prevailing in ancient India corresponded to the type now popularly known as ryotwari. Under this system the peasants cultivated their land individually, making common use of the services of the craftsmen of the village and paying land revenue to the state through the village.

The two prominent revenue officials which have been mentioned were Bhagadhuk (collector of royal share) and Samaharta (bringer of tributes). The former was concerned with the collection of taxes and tributes, which were mostly in kind, and the latter stored them in the royal granary and treasury.

The state claimed a certain portion of the produce of the crops, the amount differing in different periods. The percentage of taxation varied from eight to thirty-three per cent. This variation was not only due to variation in the quality of the land but also due to the rates charged by the rulers at different times according to their varying needs.

The normal practice was, however, to charge one- sixth of the produce as the land tax. However, those states which resorted to the imperialist policy and undertook extensive military expeditions, the rate was higher. For example Arthasastra and the Greek writers have recorded that the Mauryan rulers charged 25 per cent tax on agricultural incomes.

In cannot be said for certain whether the percentage of the land tax charged in different periods was calculated on the basis of the gross or net produce. The Jataka literature points “out that it was charged on the gross produce.

However, it is difficult to believe that the government was not making any allowance for the cost of the agriculture when it was claiming such a high share. The revenue was usually paid in kind. The revenue thus collected by the state was stored in granaries located in different parts of the country, where from it was disposed off.

However, in later period the practice of collecting revenue in cash also started although it was practised on a very limited scale.

The share of state or the land tax was not permanently fixed and the percentage varied according to the exigencies of the state finance. It could be enhanced when the king needed greater funds for the conduct of the war.

Similarly it was reduced when the crops failed or there was some other natural calamity. If the land-owner failed to pay the land tax his land could be disposed off after the lapse of a certain period, which differed from place to place and time to time. The state often charged interest on the revenue in arrears.

It may be noted that though the instances of state confiscation of land, for non­payment of land tax are available in records, the Smritis do not make any mention of the right of state to confiscate the lands of the defaulting owners. It may be further noted that the people paid all these taxes to the ruler in return for the protection which the king accorded them against all possible dangers.

Another noteworthy point with regard to the revenue adminis­tration in ancient India is that at least during the later period a systematic survey of all land was carried before determining the revenue. Both Arthasastra and Strabo confirm this.

The revenue collectors classified the different villages as best (jyestha), medium (madhama) and low (kanistha). This sort of classification of land was practiced is further confirmed by the fact that the same author­ities have mentioned different rates of revenue. Obviously this variation must have been due to the difference in the quality of land.

The rulers received a considerable part of their income from mines, forests etc. There is considerable difference of opinion amongst the authorities of this period regarding the share of the king in the metals.

While Manu says that the king should obtain one half of the metals produce in his realm, Vishnu declared the entire output of mines as the royal due. Arthasastra also says that mines were under the full control of the state.

The forests also yielded considerable re venue to the king. Persons earning a living from forests were required to pay a share to the king. According to Manu and Vishnu the king received one-sixth of the various forest products like honey, wood, medicinal herbs, leaves, grass, flowers and fruits.

In addition to the above taxes, which the king claimed regularly, certain other taxes like kara and pratibhaga were also charged by the king. The precise nature of these taxes is not clear because the different authorities have interpreted them differently.

Kara was probably a periodical tax levied on agricultural land over and above the normal grain share. Pratibhaga was sort of presents consisting of fruits, flowers and roots made to the king daily.

In short we can say that the rulers in ancient India extorted money from people under different pretexts. However, while impos­ing these taxes the ruler was expected to ensure that the subjects were not robbed of their due rewards.

We do not get any comprehensive account of the machinery for the collection of these taxes. At the most we learn that a hier­archical order of revenue officials existed. Groups of villages were administered by different officials, one under the next. These officials were responsible for the revenue administration in the area under their charge and received a fixed pay for this.

According to Prof. G. L Adhya the revenue officials were paid as follows :

Lord of 1 village—the king’s daily dues of food, drink and fuel.

Lord of 10 villages—1 Kula

Lord of 20 villages—5 Kulas

Lord of 100 villages—revenue of 1 village

Lord of 1000 villages—revenue of 1 town.

It is evident from the above account that the officials received salary according to the responsibility. Thus the lord of 20 villages received five times the income of the lord of ten. However, it is not clear as to what meant by kula. Most probably it was an area of land sufficient to maintain a family.

Source # 4. Industry:

The industry in ancient India was merely an exten­sion of the scheme of exploitation of the soil. The chief industries of ancient India were cotton and woolen textile. The other impor­tant industries included clay, metal and wood work. These industries were run by the individual craftsman with the assistance of their family members.

The larger industries also existed and were run mainly with the hired labour. For example during the times of the Mauryas the state owned not only spinning and weaving workshops, but also shops which manufactured weapons and other military equipment’s.

These worships employed large number of craftsmen on regular salaries. Even individual producers undertook production on large scale and their manufactures enjoyed wide market.

In the Jain texts we learn of the story of a potter named Saddalaputta, who owned not only 501 potters workshops but also a fleet of boats with the help of which he distributed his wares throughout the Gangetic valley. Similarly, other references are also available regarding large scale production by the individuals, hut the number of these refer­ences is not very large.

The co-operatives of the workers probably also existed. These co-operatives were based on the principle of division of labour and different members specialised in a particular branch. The individual members of the co-operatives were bound by a contract and any violation of the terms of the contract was punished severally in accordance with the law books

The craftsmen sold their products direct to the purchaser. Usually each trade or craft was concentrated in a particular locality and the stalls for sale of goods were set up in the home itself. Often these craftsmen visited the houses of the purchasers to dispose off their goods. The prices were regulated and controlled by the guilds (sreni), a sort of industrial organisation.

These guilds fixed rules of work and wages as well as the standards and prices for the commodities in which its members dealt. The regulations laid down by the guilds were enforced by the king and the government.

A person who violated the orders of the guild could be expelled from its membership and precluded from prac­tising his ancestral trade. Thus the guilds played an important role in the regulation of the economic life.

Though the guilds flourished during the times of the Buddhist scriptures, we get faint references to their existence even during the Vedic period in the Vedic literature. These guilds mainly existed in important towns of India and embrac­ed almost all trades and industries. It shall be desirable to have an idea about the organisation and functions of the guilds.

Source # 5. The Guilds:

Some sort of corporate or organised bodies of craftsmen and traders have existed in India since earliest times. These bodies were known by various terms like pani, vrata, gana and sresthi. Subsequently they came to be known as Sreni or guild.

Certain scholars have expressed doubts regarding the existence of such organised institutions in the Vedic period on the ground that the economic conditions prevailing at that time were unsuitable for their proper functioning.

During the Vedic period the society was quite primitive and was quite unstable for the working of these associations of traders and craftsmen. It is held that in India the guilds came into existence sometime between the later Vedic period and the fifth century B. C. viz., the period of the Dharmasutras.

By that time the different professions came to be organised and laid their own laws for the protection of their own interests. We get re­ferences about the guilds of agriculturists, traders, rearers of cattle, money-lenders and craftsmen in the early law books. However, it may be noted that there are no conclusive evidences to confirm the existence of the guilds during this period.

The most useful information about the early Guilds is provided by the Jatakas. The various Jataka stories are quite helpful in under­standing the working of the guilds at that time. The Jataka tells us that there were 18 kinds of guilds which shows that the guild system was quite widespread at that time.

However, the Jatakas mention only three specific guilds viz., the wood-workers, the smiths, the leather dressers and painters. The guilds gained popularity with the spread of Buddhism and Jainism.

Both these religious movements were a sort of revolt against the tyranny of the Brahmans and were heterodox religions. The merchants and artisans, whose position was not quite comfortable under the Brahmans, also extended full support to these religions.

At the time of the Arthasastra the guild system was so well entrenched in India that it pleads for certain special privileges for them such as reservation of quarters in the city and special leaves to the members of the guilds.

The influence of the guilds can be measured from the fact that the king also borrowed money from them in time of stringency. Both Manu and Yajnavalkya emphasise that the royal power should honour and preserve the laws of the guilds.

Though the primary function of the guilds was to protect the interests of the members, they also paid sufficient attention to the public good. The guilds fixed rules of work and wages as well as the standards and prices for the commodities in which its members dealt. The regulations laid down by the guilds were enforced by the king and the government.

A member who violated the orders of the guild could be expelled from the membership and precluded from practising his ancestral trade. In short, the guilds played a significant role in the regulation of the economic life.

It may be noted that the guilds mainly existed in important towns of India and embraced almost all trades and industries. Usually each guild had its own seals with particular emblems. Many such seals made of clay have been found in Basarah.

The guilds also acted as bankers and accepted deposits and lent money on interest to the merchants and others. The guilds often acted as the trustees of religious endowments and provided necessary funds for the various religious activities.

The necessary funds for meeting the expenses were raised through donations, subscription of the members, and fines levied on the defaulting members of the guilds. Sometimes rich individuals left huge funds with the guilds for carrying out public utility services on their behalf.

For example one of the inscriptions found in Jannar refers to a devotee investing the income from certain fields with a guild for the planting of karnja and banyan trees, apparently in order to gain merit by help­ing travellers. At Sanchi also the ivory-carvers guild is said to have dedicated one of the piers of Southern Gate.

The guilds found the necessary funds through donations, subscription of the members, and fines levied on the defaulting members of the guilds. The guilds also acted as the guardian of the widows and orphans of the members. It also provided them with financial assistance during sickness etc.

The chief occupations adopted by the people of ancient India included those of potters, carpenters, smiths, smelters, weavers, washermen, barbers, butchers, makers of baskets, ropes, jewelers, merchants, magicians kind so forth. The women generally engaged themselves in occupations like dyeing, embroidery and basket making.

Source # 6. Trade and Commerce:

Trade and commerce also flourished in ancient India. It was considered to be the exclusive prerogative of the Vaisya caste, even though members of the other castes also sometimes took to trade and commerce. The business was carried on both by means of barter or exchange and cash transactions.

In the earlier period the cows were convenient means of exchange and transaction. However, subsequently certain types of coins came into existence. According to scholars like Dr. Bhandarker the coins existed even during the Vedic period, but this view is not acceptable to other scholars because we have not been able to find any conclu­sive proof.

We have not come across any coins of this period. The earliest coins which have fallen in our hands belong to the first cen­tury A. D. These coins are attributed to Vima Kadphises.

Broadly speaking two types of traders existed in ancient India —those who had fixed shops and displayed and sold their goods at those shops, and the traders who moved in the shape of caravans from place to place to sell the goods.

They were popularly known as caravan traders. We cannot say for certain whether markets existed in the Vedic times, but it is certain that the villages and towns were connected by tracks, with wells at intervals.

The important inter­sections of routes in course of time developed as great commercial centres. The Buddhist Jatakas refer to numerous internal roads in northern India. Similar routes existed in the Peninsula during the Mauryan times.

J. Przyluski says, From Mauryan times onwards Patliputra was connected with Gandhara by an imperial highway, drawn on the model of the great roads of Achaemenids. It played a great part in the political and economic life of India.

After the foundation of the Greek kingdom of Bactriana commercial inter­course became very active between the valleys of the Ganges and the Oxus. For caravans loaded with goods of Bactriana and Kashmir, Mathura was the first large city in Madhvadesa as one came out of the Indus valley.

From Pataliputra three great roads radiated to the frontiers of the Empire—the south-western to Barygaza by Kausambi and Ujaayini, the northern to Nepal by Vaisali and Sarawasti, and the north-western, the longest, to Bactriana by Mathura and the upper valley of the Indus.

Kautilya tells us that the construction and maintenance of the roads was one of the primary duties of the king. For the purpose of maintenance the responsibility was entrusted to the provincial governments. From the times of, Mauryas pillars were set along the roads to mark the distances.

Waterways were also used for the purpose of trade. The ancient Indian engineers, though quite competent, could not master the art of bridges over wide rivers. Usually these rivers were crossed with the help of ferries. We have evidence to the effect that during the times of the Mauryas a well regulated ferry service was maintained by the state at important crossings.

The roads, particularly those passing through dense jungles and over hilly areas inhabited by the wild tribes, were unsafe and the merchants were waylaid by the robbers. The wild beasts like tigers, elephants, snakes etc. also posed another danger or risk to the life of the people.

To safeguard against these dangers the merchants usually moved in caravans. We learn of caravans consisting of 500 men moving under professional caravan guards who assured guidance. as well as safe conduct over the route. The danger to the merchant caravans is testified by many stories. The kings of Mauryan dynasty and certain other dynasties took numerous steps to safeguard the roads.

We do not get any evidence of the existence of a highly orga­nized financial machinery in which cheques, drafts and letters of credit existed. However, there is plenty of evidence that usury (the practice of lending money at exhorbitant rates was widespread and money lending was in vogue.

The Brahmans were however prohibited from indulging in moneylending. The Rig-Veda makes a reference to indebtedness, while Dharma Sutras lay dawn rates of interests and other regulations concerning debts and mortgages.

The just rate of interest was fifteen per cent per annum. The later commentators have however, expressed the opinion that the rates were actually much higher. Manu tells us that there was a sliding scale of interest for the unsecured loans for the debtors of different classes. While the Brahmans paid 24 per cent, Kshatriyas 36 per cent, Vaisyas 48 per cent, the Sudras had to pay 60 per cent per year.

Arthasastra makes mention of three types of rates of interest for short-term loans for commercial ventures. The normal commercial rate was 5 per cent per month. The rate for the merchants travelling through forests was 10 per cent per month and the rate for the sea-faring merchants was 20 per cent per month.

These enormous rates of interests given in the Arthasastra shows that though the commerce in ancient India was quite risky it yielded huge profit.

Source # 7. Taxation:

Like agriculture, trade and industry had also to bear its own burden of taxation. The most common tax levied on them was the octroi duties which were levied on almost all the arti­cles imported in the town or village.

The state charged this duty on the ground that it had to spend huge amounts on the up-keep and protection of the roads, which were used by the merchants to carry their goods. The octroi duties were usually collected at the gate of the town or the village by an officer known as Saulkika.

The pay­ment was made either in cash or kind, but the common practice was to charge them in kind. The octroi on different items varied. In different provinces and under different governments also their rates differed.

Arthasastra suggests that essential goods like grain, oil, sugar, pots should be taxed at one-twentieth of their value; while other goods be taxed between one-fifteenth and one-fifth, Similarly it has been suggested by Kautilya that the commodities intended for religious ceremonies and Sanskaras, as well as presents for the bride, should be exempted from octroi duties.

The custom duties were also imposed on various commodities, as in our times. No uniform rates were in existence and they differed according to the needs and policies of the different governments. Usually the goods meant for religious purposes were not subjected to any custom duty. People had also to pay ferry tax for goods, cattle, carts etc. This tax was however very nominal.

In addition to the above duties and taxes, the traders and businessmen have to pay certain other taxes. They paid fee for the testing and stamping of the weights and measures. In certain areas a shop tax was also charged, and we get frequent references about this tax in the Smritis as well as different inscriptions.

For exam­ple, the Yadavas of the Deccan charged sixed panams per annum as the shop tax. It cannot be said for certain whether sales tax was also in existence. Though Magasthenese has recorded that a ten per cent sales tax was charged, this is not confirmed by the Indian’ sources including the Arthasastra or the Smritis. According to Prof. Altekar most probably Magasthenese confused the customs dues with the sales tax.

People engaged in industry were also subjected to number of taxes. The petty artisans like smiths and carpenters had to devote one or two days work per month to the king. However, the central government could authorize the local bodies to utilise this labour for the completion of their local schemes.

Probably artisans like barbers, washermen, goldsmiths, potters etc. had to pay some nominal tax, although we do not have any confirmed basis to say so.

Trade in wine was under strict state control. Wine was manu­factured either in state distilleries or in privately owned distilleries. The latter had to pay an excise duty of 5 per cent. Excise duty was also charged on salt and other metals.

Source # 8. Other Sources of State Income:

In addition to the revenues raised through taxes, the state possessed certain other sources of income. These include the income from state properties, the profits of state industries, proceeds of fines and tributes from feudatories. It shall be desirable to make a detailed study of these sources.

The state property consisted of crown lands, waste lands, forests, mines, natural tanks and reservoirs etc. The state acquired useable income. In addition to the private owned land, a large tracts of land was owned by the state which was either given out to private tenants on rent or cultivated through hired labourers.

This yield­ed considerable income to the state. The waste-land, which belonged to the state, was usually entrusted to the care of the local bodies. These bodies in turn would hand over these lands to enterprising persons for cultivation by promising them land tax exemption for the initial period of four or five years.

The ownership of the mines and its products has vested in the state since earliest times. Most of the mines were worked by the state but sometimes these were leased out to private individuals. While the state owned the entire yield in the former category of the mines, even in the latter case it received a substantial share.

The right over the treasure troves also rested with the state, and it claim­ed a major part from the finder. The state charged certain licence fee for gambling and prostitu­tion. But the tributes from feudatories were the most important source of income, However, this source was quite uncertain and irregular.

A feudatory king paid tribute only as long as he was weak and the imperial army was strong enough to extract it. The fines imposed on criminals by the courts also went to the state treasury. The heirless and ownerless property also lapsed to the state.

Source # 9. Forced Labour:

In addition to taxes the state in ancient India extracted forced labour. The state held that the poor people, who could not afford to pay taxes in cash or kind, should also make some contribution to the state in return for the protection accorded to them.

The most convenient way to make the contribution was through free service to the state. Usually such people were required to work for the state free for one or two days in a month. While they work­ed for the state they were fed by the state.

Mostly this free labour was not utilised by the central government and it authorised the local bodies to utilise the services of these people for carrying out local works of public utility.

According to Prof. A. S. Altekar, “The right to free labour therefore eventually benefited the village commu­nities themselves, as it enabled them to get the help and cooperation of a number of labourers, carpenters and smiths in building and repairing roads, rest-houses and tanks.”

Source # 10. Foreign Trade:

India had trade relations with a number of foreign countries in ancient India. In the Vedic hymns there is a clear indication that India carried on trade with Babylon and count­ries of the West Asia. This is inferred from the legend of flood in the Satapatha Brahman.

By the Buddhist times the sailors had made contact with Burma, Malaya and the island of Indonesia. It was only in the first century A.L. that India established maritime trade with Roman empire.

India mainly exported items of luxuries to West, which were in great demand. However, with the fall of the Roman Empire India’s trade with the West declined. But some sort of trade continued with the Arabs. A contract between South India and China was also established through sea and India’s trade with China increased tremendously.

The Indian spices, jewels, perfumes and other luxury items continued to be exported to China. The trade with Central Asia was carried on through mountain track which ran from Kabul to the upper valley of Oxus, east of Bactria (Balkh).

Certain scholars have tried to suggest that the Indian maritime activities had made tremendous progress, and India possessed ships which could take 1000 passengers. This according to Prof. Basham seems to be an exaggeration.

Pliny, the Greek historian of the first century A.D. who has given us valuable information about the maritime trade of the Indians says that the largest ship known to India measured 3,000 emphorae, or only seventy-five tons. Fa-Hien, the Chinese traveller who travelled from Ceylon to Java in a ship, tells us that the Indian ships could carry 203 persons.

The ships in ancient India mainly followed the coastline and most of the ports of ancient India were located on the western coast. Some of the prominent ports included Bhargukaccha, Supara (near Bombay) and Patala, on the Indus delta.

In the East the Campa was the main port. It was located in the Ganga Basin. However by the times of Mauryas Campa lost its importance and Tamralipti developed as the main sea port of the Ganga basin in the east. Ships sailed from Tamralipti not only to Ceylon but also to South-East Asia.

The Tamilian kings also did much to encourage sea trade. They constructed a number of harbours, light-houses and wharves, where the ships of the Yavanas discharged their merchandise.

The main items exported by India to the foreign countries included spices, perfumes, jewels, fine textiles, sugar, rice, ghee and ivory goods. The Indian iron, lac and indigo were also in great demand. Live animals and birds like elephants, lions, tigers, buffa­loes, monkeys, parrots, peacocks etc. were exported to Rome.

While animals like elephants, lions, tigers, and buffaloes were meant for would beast shows of the Roman emperors, the other animals and birds were brought up as pets. In return for these exports India got plenty of gold.

Pliny, the Greek historian has said that the annual drain to the East was 103 million sesterces. This drain ultimately led tire Roman Empire into financial difficulties. In addition to gold a large number of gold coins were also exported to India.

A large quantity of Roman coins have been found in many parts of the Peninsula and Ceylon, which gives the impression that they were being used as regular currency. In addition India also imported pottery and glassware from West.

Certain remains of the same have been found at the tradition of Arikamedu near Pondicherry. The western wine, tin, lead, coral and slave girls were also in demand. Indians also imported silks from China.

Thus, we find that the maritime trade continued to flourish during the ancient times. However, subsequently this trade was monopolized by the merchants because it came to be believed that travel to foreign lands led to impurity, which could not be expun­ged.

Consequently the members of the upper classes avoided foreign travels. In subsequent centuries the Arabs and the Chinese also made considerable progress in the art of ship construction and gave a rude set-back to India’s foreign trade.

The 10 most important sources of income for websites

The 10 most important sources of income for websites

Three years in a row, we have looked at how much each of the top websites in the world earn on a annual bases. This year, we put a lot more time and effort into it, to find the most up to date information, most people wouldn’t even know! Find out how many employees Amazon have, which sites Google has bought, who’s the most profitable and much more! We hope you enjoy the list and please let us know what you think in the comments.

How Much Does Amazon, Google and Facebook Make?

Amazon – $34,204,000,000 $1,084 per second

Founded in 1994 and currently employing 33,700 people, remains the world’s largest online retailers, with the highest revenue of any company on this list. Selling an assortment of products across the world in countries as far as the UK, Austria, Japan and China, Amazon is no longer just an online retailer, they’re the head of a very large family of companies such as IMDb, Lovefilm, Zappos and Alexa. There’s no doubt that Amazon has made a huge difference with where we shop in the last 15 years, with the closest website runner up in sales being Staples with less than a third of the sales of Amazon.


Google – $29,321,000,000 $929 per second

Google’s ability to come in and create instantly popular features such as Google+, make it a force to be reckoned with for any website. The current leader in internet traffic is Facebook, so Google recently came out with their answer to that; ‘Google+’. Starting out in 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google grew into most users ‘go-to’ site for searching the internet, and their user friendly mottos of ‘to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful’ and perhaps more importantly ‘Don’t be evil’, has helped them to become the globally recognised brand that they are today.

eBay – $9,156,000,000 $290 per second

Founded back in 1995 (beginning to see a pattern emerging here) by Pierre Omidyar, this is without a doubt the best and most successful alternative to traditional online shopping, where you can effectively cut out retailer to buy and sell between user and user, cutting costs and raising money for unwanted goods. Founded in 1995, eBay has acquired 35 companies in the past 13 years including 6 online auction sites in the US, South Korea, India, France and Sweden, ensuring that they’re the no.1 name in online actions. They’ve even used some of the money that they’ve raised in the past to buy companies like Skype, before selling them for profit.

Yahoo! – $6,324,000,000 $200 per second

We often think of Yahoo! as the company that could never quite keep up with Google, even though it’s 2 years older, yet Yahoo! is so much more. At no.4 on this list, it has a mammoth revenue, and the site covers many similar areas to Google, only just not as well. Yahoo! was founded back in March of 1995 and they certainly have their fingers in a lot of pies, acquiring over 60 different companies in the last 16 years. As far as search engine traffic goes, I get 64 times the amount of traffic from Google, so it is in fact these acquisitions and ventures that make them a hell of a lot of money, not their search engine.

Alibaba – $5,557,600,000 $176 per second

Alibaba is the ultimate business-to-business tool and brings together importers and exporters from more than 240 countries and regions, all in one place. Alibaba focuses on facilitating trade between users across the world, and AliExpress focuses on smaller transactions between buyers and sellers worldwide. With 65 million registered users in more than 240 countries and offices in more than 70 locations worldwide, they’re the market leader in online world goods trade.

Expedia, Inc. – $3,348,000,000 $106 per second

Founded in 1996 as a division of Microsoft, Expedia, Inc. own a range of travel brands from to Tripadvisor, and their massive affiliate network has boosted their revenue to an all time high in recent years. Back in 2008, Fortune labeled Expedia one of the top 3 most admired internet companies, and one of the best managed companies in the same year. In the 15 years that they’ve been around, they’ve become the 1-stop shop for booking a holiday, covering every aspect of travel, and making them no.1 in the online travel industry.

Priceline – $3,072,240,000 $97 per second

Priceline specialise in facilitating the sale of flights, hotels, cars, vacation and cruises and are famous for their ‘name your own price’ system. In this system, travellers would name the price they wanted to pay, the service level they wanted and the general location, but, the companies used, exact location of hotels and flight itineraries were only revealed once the purchase had gone through and the customer had no right to cancel. It’s an unusual idea, but it seems to have done very well for them and their celebrity endorsers. William Statner, who was hired as a spokesperson for the company, chose stock over pay and is rumored to have sold a large majority of it right before the dot-com bubble burst and has made approximately $600 million from it.

AOL – $2,417,000,000 $77 per second

Founded all the way back in 1991 as America Online, and rebranded as AOL in 2006, AOL is best known for it’s online software suite, where, at it’s prime, 30 million members worldwide would access the internet through this community. Business may be good compared to some of the other companies on the list, but when you compare what they made in 2010, to what they made in 2006 (when the company went through it’s rebranding), they now make less than a third of what they did. The trouble was bloated and outdated software, overpriced services and the fact that they were no longer keeping up with the pace of the fast moving online world, or providing high demand services anymore. Sure it’s making a lot of money, but we expect to see it lower on this list next year.

NetFlix – $2,160,000,000 $68 per second

This is a relatively young company compared to some of the others on this list, founded back in 1997, NetFlix is a subscription based, online streaming and postal DVD rental company that is expanding across the world. They’ve built their reputation on their business model on a flat fee subscription, without late fees or due dates, and the ability to rent more than one film at a time. They’ve excelled where Blockbuster have failed and that’s evident in their respective companies revenues over the last 5 years. NetFlix recognised what was wrong with the movie rental industry, and saw where the future was going, and then went there with it. They’re coming to the UK very soon…

Facebook – $2,000,000,000 $63 per second

So popular, they even made a movie about it. As the youngest company on this list so far, founded in only 2004, Facebook currently has more than 750 million active users on it and has blown other social networks such as Myspace and Bebo out of the water when it comes to popularity. Started by the world’s youngest billionaire – Mark Zuckerberg – Facebook is not without it’s problems, including considerable legal battles and rival companies. With a pattern of social networks losing their overinflated worth and huge following, and the recent launch of Google+, who knows what’s in store for Facebook in the coming months.

Baidu – $1,199,000,000 $38 per second

As the largest and most popular search engine in Chine, Baidu is responsible for 56.6% of all searchs. Think of them like a Chinese Google, they index over 740 million web pages, 80 million images, and 10 million multimedia files and their services range from your standard search, maps, images and videos, to their own version of Wikipedia, games and internet TV streaming. And they’re still growing, business in 2010 was almost double what it was in 2009, making them a very safe bet when it come to investment.

Overstock – $1,100,000,000 $35 per second

2010 was a good year for Overstock, it was their first billion dollar one and their most successful year yet. Their business model, as their name would suggest, is to sell overstocked surplus goods, as well liquidating the inventories of failed companies and selling their goods at below wholesale prices. Overstock has branched out though, they also offer a small online auction side to the website and sell hand made products from workers in developing nations. Their accolades include being voted no.2 in the U.S. for best customer service and a Forbes study found them to be one of the top 10 best places to work in America. (or for short) had their first annual profit in April of 2010 and things are looking up from there.

Skype – $860,000,000 $27 per second

With a total 663 million registered users in 2010, Skype is the largest voice and video service on the internet and has recently been bought by Microsoft for US$8.5 billion. Skype was founded back in 2003 as a peer-to-peer network, where users can call each other for free over the internet and make discount calls to local numbers all over the world. Originally developed by the same guys who created Kazaa, the massive ‘Napster like’ peer-to-peer program, Skype has consistently added new features and changed hands twice in the last 6 years. Originally bought by eBay for $2.6 billion in 2005, there wasn’t even 100million users onboard, but they soon started picking up when broadband speeds increased and they started rolling out features like video calling. A couple months ago in May, Microsoft made their deal to buy Skype, so it’s anyones guess what exciting new features we have ahead of us.

Zynga – $850,000,000 $27 per second

Founded just 4 years ago in 2007, this website has become shockingly successful from their social networking games such as FarmVille and Zynga Poker with over 270 million monthly users. These browser based games are primarily played through social networks such as Myspace and Facebook where users can interact with their friends and see how each other are doing. They make their money in an unusual way of limiting certain parts of the game to users who will buy credits to do certain activities, with payments amounts even exceeding $500. They’ve recently signed an agreement with Facebook for users to only use Facebook credits for these purchases, and in turn Facebook will help them to reach targets that they set. For people who don’t wish to pay for credits, there are options of taking out offers and surveys from Zynga’s numerous partners, which is helping them to make more money and drive more traffic. An unusual, but wildly successful business model, that seems to have grown very rapidly over the past 4 years.

Taobao – $774,210,000 $25 per second

Taobao is a Chinese language online retailer similar, to Amazon or eBay, where retailers and users can sell direct to other users, with a large majority of products sold being new. Founded 8 years ago, they had more than 370 million registered users by the end of 2010, currently host more than 800 million product listings and are raked at number 15 overall in the Alexa rank. Due to the different nature in the ways shopping is done in China, Taobao have integrated an instant chat feature where buyers and sellers can talk directly to each other to find out more information on a product, but more importantly, barter on price. The majority of their income comes not from commission, like Amazon and eBay, but from advertising revenue produced by sellers trying to market a product to sell on their site.

Groupon – $760,000,000 $24 per second

Groupon, a deal-of-the-day website, launched just 3 years ago in 2008 in just one city, is now in 150 markets in North America and 100 markets in Europe, Asia and South America with a following of more than 35 million registered users. The hugely rapid growth has had the Wall Street Journal report that the company is on pace to make $1 billion in sales faster than any other business, ever. The idea is simple, you sign up to a daily newsletter for the city that you live in and you’ll receive daily deals for stuff that you may be interested in. You find stuff for cheap, the seller makes loads of money, and Groupon make a fat commission. They’ve come along way in a sea of over 500 tough competitors, but only 1 has really come close, and that’s LivingSocial, but even that hasn’t made much of a dent. There is 1 reason to be worried though, and that’s Google, who, having failed to buy Groupon for US$6billion, are planning to launch their own competing product called Google Offers, and we all know what a force Google can be…

Orbitz – $757,500,000 $24 per second

Orbitz revenue is actually a little bit down in the past couple years, but they’re still one of the most popular places to look for travel information with 1.5 million flight searches and 1 million hotel searches made through their website everyday. Founded in 2001, Orbitz was established through a partnership of major airlines as a way to get in on the action that sites like Expedia and Travelocity were having, and it’s done so very successfully with 5 of the 6 major airlines combining to make this happen.

Yandex – $439,700,000 $14 per second

Yet another search engine has made it onto the list, this time from the largest country in the world – Russia, where it’s the largest search engine in the country. The majority of Yandex’s income comes from advertising, but like all good search engines, they don’t just do your bog standard searches. Yandex index over 10 billion pages, own a road traffic monitoring agency which they use for their maps, offer photo sharing service similar to Flickr and run an e-commerce payment system which is the second most popular in Russia. When you consider that Russia has declining a population of less than 142 million, and China has a population of over 1.3 billion, Yandex have done very well for themselves compared to Baidu.

ClickBank – $350,000,000 $11 per second

If you’ve been blogging for much time at all, you’ll be familiar with ClickBank; it’s an online marketplace for digital information products. If you were to create a digital product such as an ebook for sale, this is where you’d come to find affiliate markets in your niche who would sell it for you. You have to give away a large commission, but the beauty of a digital product means that once it’s been made, it doesn’t cost you any money to reproduce so you can continue to sell it at whatever price you’d like. Voted the no.1 affiliate network in America, the website has attracted over 1 million affiliate marketers, with around 10% of them being active at any one time.

LinkedIn – $215,200,000 $7 per second

Launched back in May 2003, LinkedIn is like a business version of Facebook with more than 100 million users in over 200 countries across the world. With the slogan ‘Relationships Matter’, LinedIn realise the importance of business networking in helping to build a company and so do their users, which is why they currently get 33.9 million unique visitors a month, surpassing Myspace in traffic. By the end of 2010, LinkedIn was valued at $1.575 billion, and has earned a lot of respect from critics, with Silicon Valley Insider ranking the company No.10 on its Top 100 List of most valuable start ups at the end of 2010.

17 Ways You Can Make Money Online Right Now

17 Ways You Can Make Money Online Right Now

1. Sell Your Photos

Do you have photo skills or live in an area where images are in demand? “Stock photography websites are huge repositories of photographs, covering almost every possible subject you could imagine,” advises International Living. So how does it work? Photographers can upload their images to any one of a number of huge databases, allowing magazine editors, designers or any organization with a website to buy them. And the beauty of stock websites: Photos can be sold any number of times—so you can continue to make money without any effort. Photography sites to check out include Shutterstock, Photoshelter and Getty Images.

2. Create How-To Videos

“In recent years, YouTube has grown into the go-to source for all manner of video courses and guides,” says International Living. “Instructors can monetize their videos by charging a subscription fee or password protecting content for paying customers only.” This article shares some tips from one real estate agent who made $100,000 in one month on YouTube. Another piece of advice from International Living: Get to know the phrases that people search for. To find potential search phrases, start typing “how to [your topic]” into YouTube’s search bar and notice what phrases are generated in the auto-fill dropdown. Make sure to use the same keywords when you write your video title, description, and tags.

3. Become a Copywriter

Want to earn a great income no matter where you live—a house by the sea in Latin America, an historic European city or even on a Greek island? Copywriting could be ideal for you. According to International Living, “copywriting is a mega-industry, ripe with opportunity. And yearning for people who can fuel it with fresh marketing messages and one of the best benefits of the freelance copywriter’s lifestyle is that you can get paid in U.S. dollars…yet live virtually anywhere in the world.” Express Writers has tips on how to become a copywriter and is also a resource for jobs.

4. Teach English

“If you’re a native English speaker, you may not realize it, but you already have the number one qualification you need for a fun, portable income that can hand you a steady paycheck from anywhere in the world,” says International Living. Some resources include, TeachAway (teach English online to Chinese students), iTutorGroup (teach English online to Taiwanese children and adults) and English Hunt (teach English on the phone to adult students in Korea)

5. Turn Your Interests Into a Podcast That Pays

“Podcasting doesn’t have to be complicated,” says International Living. With a microphone, laptop and free recording software, you’ll be up and running. Plus, podcasts don’t need to run every day (once a week is best) and are better when they’re short. There are a number of ways to make money from a podcast. The most obvious is commercial sponsorship, but you can also use it as a platform to advertise your own products or services. NPR has a great guide to launching a podcast here.

6. Set up a Content and Web Development Business

Do you know how to do web and content development? You can offer these services to anyone via online tools that make developing beautiful websites a snap. Some resources include WordPress, Weebly and Joomla.

translation work from home or anywhere
7. Become a Translator and Interpreter

Do you speak another language? Anywhere you find expat communities—and where English is not the first language—you’ll find a need for interpreting and translation services. You can also do translation and interpretation online. You’ll find a number of resources for being a translator or an interpreter here; one of the best is Welocalize, which ranked at the top of this list of the top 20 companies for remote jobs in 2020.

8. Try Drop-shipping

Have you heard of drop-shipping? It’s a method of retail where the seller doesn’t actually have a physical inventory. Instead, when a customer makes an order, you purchase the item from a third party, and they ship it directly to the customer. “This means you’ll never have to fork over a single dime to store your products or maintain your inventory,” advises International Living. “And you’ll never have to buy products in bulk, hoping to sell enough to recoup your investment.” This method can be done with online selling platforms like eBay or Amazon. You can find out more about drop-shipping in this helpful article from Shopify.

9. Tutor

“Establishing your own tutoring service can be a lucrative business that provides you with a comfortable and flexible lifestyle,” advises International Living. “The best part of all, you can set up a tutoring business in almost any country in the world.” A tip: Offer discounts to clients who promote your business. “Word-of-mouth marketing is still one of the most valuable marketing tools you can have when starting out,” advises International Living. The site has a list of the best online tutoring jobs, and you can also apply to be a tutor at

10. Become a Freelance Proofreader

Proofreading is another lucrative online career. “Most agencies will pay around 25% of the price of a translated document to a proofreader,” advises International Living. “Agencies charge about $75 for the translation of a five-page standard business document. So proofing the same document—which takes about an hour—pays out about $18 to $20.” You can work full time, part-time or around-the-clock. Mediabistro—a site that offers resources for media professionals—has tips on how to become a proofreader.

11. Type for Cash

Are you a fast typist? Transcribing is simple: Listen to an audio file through headphones and type it out. “As a transcriber, your pay is directly related to how fast you type,” advises International Living. “Transcription jobs are paid by the audio hour (the length of the audio file), rather than by the hour worked. The time spent on a transcript is influenced by the audio quality, background noise, the accent of the speaker and the speed at which people speak.” The average transcriber—typing between 75 and 100 words per minute—will complete one audio hour in four hours worked. Consider the company, which hires freelance transcribers.

12. Create a Money-Making Blog

Do you have an area of expertise? Share your advice on a blog. If travel is your area of expertise, think about what you have to offer: Are you an expert in luxury travel or budget travel? Can you share advice about certain activities like hiking or shopping? “The more specific you get, the easier it’ll be to attract an engaged audience and to earn money with your site,” advises International Living. The sites Squarespace and Wix have tips on how to create blogs and can also host them.

13. Tap Into the E-Book Business

The e-book business is a great way to earn money. You can create your own (Kindle has a guide for how to do it). Or find a book that’s already been published in print and license it to publish online. You can pay the author 8-15% royalties based on net sales or a one-time payment for the online publishing rights.

14. Set up an Online Course

Or go beyond writing an e-book and create a whole online course with tutorials, PDF downloads and videos. It’s a great way to create passive income because people will pay for the info and can go at their own pace or post questions related to the course in a dedicated group. Here’s one resource for creating and selling online courses: LearnWorlds, which makes it possible for anyone to profit from their knowledge and experience by creating an online program.

online life coach

15. Become a Life Coach (or Even a Travel Coach)

“Life coaching is a thought-provoking and creative process that helps people focus on both personal and professional goals,” advises International Living. “People use life coaching to overcome fears, boost their self-confidence, create goals and instill success-oriented habits.” You can find thousands of online training programs on how to be a life coach, and many certification programs offer an entire website setup once training is completed. If travel is your area of expertise, you can even become a travel coach. Read this story about a travel writer who became a travel coach.

16. Become an Audiobook Narrator

“Audiobooks are an increasingly popular form of entertainment. The convenience factor of smartphones has led to an industry boom,” advises International Living. “That’s creating a demand for freelance narrators.” This site has advice on learning how to become an audiobook narrator.

17. Internet Research and Surveys

Another way to make good money is by surfing the Internet in your spare time or filling out online surveys. “If you’re looking for a way to make an extra $1,000, $2,000 a month part-time—then Internet research is for you,” advises International Living. Add the site Qmee to your browser, and if you click on a search result, you’ll earn money. You can also earn cash for taking Qmee surveys and sharing your opinions on brands. Other survey sites include SurveyBods, Survey Junkie and Valued Opinions. Another way to make a series of small cash rewards while on the go? With the new app Current, travelers can make up to an extra $600 a year by simply listening to music and performing various tasks.

Ways You Can Make Money Online Right Now

Ways You Can Make Money Online Right Now

Want to make money without leaving home during the coronavirus pandemic? Or do you want to figure out ways to make money online so that you can fund your travels when coronavirus subsides? International Living—a website dedicated to helping people live and travel abroad—has just issued an insightful new report on 50 ways to make money in retirement. The report is aimed at retirees who want to fund their lives overseas, but here’s the secret gem: Hidden between the advice on opening a gallery, becoming a tour guide or joining the craft beer revolution, you’ll find smart advice that anyone can use to make money online. “No matter your skill set, no matter what you do now or did in the past, there is an option that will align with your own skills and passions,” the editors explain.

According to Jennifer Stevens, executive editor at International Living, the list is vast, but it isn’t comprehensive. “We created it to give people a sense for the scope of opportunity out there,” says Stevens. “We’ve written lots about the different ways expats abroad fund their lives. Sometimes it’s with online work—like writing or drop-shipping. Sometimes it’s in-person services they provide, from running a consignment store to wedding planning. Certainly, the online opportunities provide great flexibility and portability. But it’s worth pointing out that business owners in many places tell us that it’s much easier to start a business abroad because it’s often less expensive and less bureaucratic than it is at home.”

Though it might seem like an unusual time to start a new career, Jeff Opdyke—the Prague-based editor of The Savvy Retiree and contributor to International Living—says that “it’s up to us to learn how to take back control of our own lives, of our lifestyles and our personal happiness.”

Opdyke also points out that for all the damage coronavirus has wrought and all the damage still to come, it might have some positive outcomes when it comes to the work world. “What this crisis is demonstrating is the capacity for so many workers to untether themselves from cubicles and work from home—or wherever,” he says. “In the cold, corporate calculus of a post-corona world, I think we’re going to see an increasing number of visionary companies realize that there are vast cost savings to be had in letting workers work from wherever. There’s no need to pay the costs of running a cubicle farm when workers already have places they can work—their home, a coffee shop, wherever. And I think we will see increased productivity from this because workers will be motivated.”

So the lesson here is that while you might be working from home now, this might eventually translate into living and working abroad—and living the dream. Opdyke’s advice? “Be as productive as you possibly can. Be over-productive. Step up your game so that when all of this over, you have some potential leverage to talk to your bosses about trying a work-at-home life. That’s assuming, of course, you like your work-at-home life. Not everyone will. But if you feel the freedom those of us working remotely feel, then now, amid this crisis, is a great opportunity for you to shine so that bosses take note.”

So whether you’re looking to live in a foreign country some day, just want to work from home in the current coronavirus environment or want to restructure your career to be able to work remotely forever, read on for 17 ways you can make money online. It’s valuable information to have during this current economic crisis—and beyond.

After that, we’ve got three creative money-making ideas from the International Living list that we dream about doing when the world gets back to normal.

How To Make Money Fast: Up to $100-$500 TODAY (at home)

How To Make Money Fast: Up to $100-$500 TODAY (at home)

There’s tons of money making opportunities out there, but if you need to learn how to make money fast, the last thing you want is to do meaningless tasks for low pay, learn a new skill that could take months or spend money out of pocket to make your first dollar.

Here’s what I’ll teach you:

How to earn more money after one conversation with your boss
How to lower every single one of your bills
How to start making money on the side THIS WEEK
Then we’ll get into the best part:

How to optimize your career and job – the easiest way to make the most money FOREVER.

NOTE: If you’re serious about making more money, I’ve got something just for you – my FREE Ultimate Guide to Making Money.

I also made a video where I cover everything I talk about in the blog post. Check it out below:

The seven best ways to make money fast are:
Negotiate your bills
Negotiate your rent
Sell stuff on eBay, OfferUp, Craigslist, Facebook Marketplace, etc.
Negotiate your salary
Change your job
Find your first freelancing client
Start an online business
Now, let’s take a look at each of these different ways to make more money so you can see which option is best for YOU!

How fast do you need to make money?
How to make $100 – $500+ TODAY (without leaving your couch)
Non-scammy ways you can make extra money fast to get your head above water immediately including negotiating your bills, rent and even getting rid of old stuff on eBay.

You don’t even have to leave your house to get started.

How to make $1,000 – $5,000 THIS MONTH
Mid-term systems to dramatically increase the money you make each and every month. My students have dramatically changed their financial outlook by upping their work salaries, finding a new, higher-paying job or using skills they already have to freelance.

How to make $10,000+ THIS YEAR
Long-term systems that build the foundation for your financial independence and propel you toward having a Rich Life. This strategy is simple, and if you follow the first two sections, you’ll have the understanding and capital to start your own business.

How to make money fast idea graph
How to Make $100 – $500+ Today (without leaving your couch)
1. Negotiate your bills
The awesome thing about negotiations is you can do it with practically every service you pay for. That includes the fixed costs you pay each month. This is a great way to make money right now.

Things like:

Credit card rates and fees
Gym fee
Cable fee
Cell phone fee
Car insurance
With a quick phone call, you can get these costs lowered, putting more money directly into your pocket.

Because the dirty secret is that most of these companies rely on thousands of people to zombie walk through their payment process. That’s why your cable company seems to jack up rates every year. They know you’ll likely just shrug, throw it away, and carry on with your day.


Save $1,000 with 5 phone calls

By calling these companies and asking one simple question, you open the door for more money in your pocket. Just remember two magic phrases:

“Times are tough.”
“Is there anything you can do for me?”
Example conversation script:

how to make money fast example conversation script 1
The key is to be nice. Be cordial and ask them what better plans they have to offer you. Nothing’s going to get you shot down quicker than getting angry and screaming, “HOW DARE YOU SCREW ME OVER WITH THESE PRICES. I WON’T STAND FOR IT. GIVE ME fewer FEES … uh please?”

If you mess up or things don’t go as planned, don’t worry. Hang up and call back. You can always play around with a few phone calls and see what works best.

When you get to the customer retention department, restart the sequence. This is when you pull out your competitive intel on the other services being offered.

If Verizon is offering something for $10 less, tell them that. That’s $120 savings/year right there. But you can do more.

You: Listen, you know times are tough and I need to get a better deal to stick with you guys. You know and I know that your customer acquisition cost is hundreds of dollars. It just makes sense to keep me as a customer, so what can you do to offer me this plan for less money?

Notice that you didn’t say, “Can you give me a cheaper plan?” because yes/no questions always get a “no” answer when speaking to wireless customer service reps (or anybody whose job it is to get you off the phone and out of their hair as soon as possible)

Instead, ask leading questions. You also invoked the customer-acquisition cost, which is meaningful to retention reps. Finally, it really helps if you’re a valued customer who’s stuck around for a long time and actually deserves to be treated well.

If you want an even deeper guide on how to make money by saving, check out my Save $1000 in a Month Challenge.

Finding this helpful? Don’t miss out on my most popular piece of free content. Download my FREE Ultimate Guide to Making Money now!

2. Negotiate your rent
Rent as a percentage of your expenses chart
I’d bet that rent is your biggest expense. Save $100 on your rent and that adds up to $1,200 a year with ONE conversation. Or you could collect 24,000 cans and recycle them. Your choice!

Of course, you can’t just say, “I want to take $200 per month off my rent!” You have to be ready to offer something in return.

What does your landlord really want? Tenants who are making money for them, of course. But dig deeper and you’ll find there’s a lot more you can offer. The goal is to give them something you don’t care about in exchange for something you do.

Here are a few things many landlords will happily lower rents for:

Prepay months in advance
Sign an extended lease
Offer to extend the termination notice from 30 days to 60 or 90 days
Offer to give up your parking space if you don’t have a car (the landlord could charge another tenant for an extra space)
Promise not to smoke in the apartment (this will save the landlord money when you move out)
Promise not to keep cats even if they’re allowed (another cleaning expense for the landlord)
Make a deal for referrals if they have low occupancy
If you know what you want and you know what they want, the chances of succeeding in your negotiation increase significantly. Here’s an example script you can use to lower your monthly rent:

how to make money fast example conversation script 2
NOTE: If you want to make your home (or anywhere with WiFi) your office, make sure you check out my article Working From Home: The Essential Beginner’s Guide.

3. Make money fast selling on eBay, Craigslist, Facebook Marketplace (or whatever site you want)
A few years ago, I was skeptical when it came to selling things on eBay, Facebook, Craigslist, or any other online marketplace. Can you really make money doing that? But then I tested selling a few things online… and I ended up making money. Quite a bit actually. $1,000+. We ALL have things laying around the house that we can sell. Maybe…

There’s a pair of nice shoes in your closet that you never wear
In your attic, you have some old baseball cards collecting dust
You recently upgraded your laptop and don’t know what to do with your old one
If you want help figuring out how to do this successfully, I’ve written about how to successfully sell items on eBay in this blog article.

For more on how to make more money, you can download my Ultimate Guide to Making Money for FREE.

How to Make $1,000 – $5,000 this month
1. Negotiate your salary
I LOVE salary negotiations!

With just a five-minute conversation you can make thousands more and, what’s better, the gains add up year after year.

This one of my favorite ways to ways to make money through a single conversation. It’s essentially quick money that — unlike taking surveys or selling your body to medical studies — gives you a LOT of money over many years.

Check this chart demonstrating the effects of ONE $5,000 raise:

How much negotiating a $5000 raise will get you over 40 years
Learning how to make more money via salary negotiations is simple — though it’s going to take a little bit of work on your part:

Step one: Find out! Use sites like,, or and get the salary range for your job and location.

Step two: Give the heads up. Let your boss know you’re preparing to discuss salary with him or her. I cover how to do that in the 14-minute video below.

How to negotiate your salary

Step three: Use the Briefcase Technique. Before even stepping foot into the room, use my tried and true Briefcase Technique. This is something my students have used THOUSANDS of times for IMMEDIATE gains in salary. This is a surefire way to make the most money you can from a job.

The Briefcase Technique

Now, two big roadblocks might arise.

First, if you’re not good at your job, there’s no amount of negotiating that will help.

That’s why I love salary negotiations. Not only is it a good incentive for you to work harder and become a Top Performer, but you also stand to gain a lot of money from the hard work.

FACT: Doing a good job at work 10x’s your chances of making more money.

But if you’re going through your job just HOPING you’re doing a good job, you’ll be forgotten when it comes times for raises — and you won’t earn more.

Just like great companies get inside the heads of their customers, Top Performers figure out EXACTLY what their bosses want and optimize their strengths accordingly.

Tie everything you do to whatever goal is important to your boss and remind them often. This is how people become indispensable.

See my interview with Michael Williams for more:

Second, your company might tell you that they simply don’t have enough money to give you a raise. Get around that stonewall using the systems I outline in the video below.

Ask Ramit: How can I negotiate salary when they tell me they can’t pay more?

Once you have all of your prep ready, you’re good to go. But if you’re a weirdo overachiever like me, you can also check out my complete guide with scripts, more videos, and common mistakes here.

Negotiating your salary takes a bit of upfront work, but just ONE conversation can be worth thousands. It’s one of the easiest ways to make money.

The best way to make money fast is not to reinvent the wheel and to leverage the sources of income you already have. So the next time someone tells you to get more money by cutting back on lattes or by picking up loose change, grab them by the shoulders, and shake them for me.

Be sure to remind them that you’d have to skip out on 1,370 lattes in order to save $5,000 (or they can just get a one-time raise).

Read even more: Salary Negotiation: How to negotiate better than 99% of people

Finding this helpful? Don’t miss out on my most popular piece of free content. Download my FREE Ultimate Guide to Making Money now!

2. Change your job
Should you change jobs? Change industries? How do you know whether to stay put or to take a risky move that will result in more money? By using the Bezos Regret Minimization Framework.

Ask yourself: Which will you regret more 20 years from now: Staying in your current situation or trying something new and failing?

And remember: the more responsibility you have, the more money you can command.

More on that here:

Deciding when to take risks in life.

3. Find your first freelance client
I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again: There is a limit to how much you can save, but there is no limit to how much you can earn.

Finding a new job or changing careers takes time (we’ll get to that). But in the next few days, you can set up your first side hustle and make money fast.

The best part: Freelancing is a skill. That means you can get BETTER at it with time.

And once you get your first paying client, it’ll be easier to get more clients and make more money.

NOTE: If you’re serious about freelancing, make sure you check out my FREE Official Handbook to 6-Figure Freelancing with Zero Experience.

First thing: So many other websites will tell you to troll for freelance gigs on places like Fiverr or Mechanical Turk. These places work if you want to compete with people all over the world in a race to do the most work for less. No thanks.

Look at what you’ve already got. 95% of jobs can translate into some sort of side gig. Ask yourself:

What do I enjoy?
What do I do with my free time?
What do people ask me to do because I’m so good at it?
People are very bad at identifying their own skills. They’ll say things like, “I dunno … I guess I’m good at writing and communication, and, like, general organizational skills…” AMAZING!! HERE’S A $4,000/MONTH RETAINER!!! (Sorry, won’t happen.)

Repeat this over and over: People pay for solutions, not your skills.

For example, I was on a webcast where I was suggesting ways for people to earn money on the side, and I mentioned that I hate cooking, am not good at it, and would love it if someone cooked for me.

I got an email later that night from someone who said, “Ramit, I can help. I can teach you everything you need to know over one weekend, and you’ll know 3-5 great dishes to cook.” I appreciated the offer, but wrote back, “Thanks for the offer! But you don’t understand. I don’t want to learn — I want someone to do it for me.”

Again: People have problems. And they want solutions.

They don’t care what you’re “interested” in. Are they too busy to organize their closets? Do they need someone to help them redesign their website? Maybe they want someone to teach their kid how to play the flute.

Start off by assessing the skills you use every day at home or at work.

Typically, you can break these down into two areas:

Skills. These are things you have the expertise and knowledge in (e.g., languages, coding, copywriting).
Passions. These are things you love to do in your free time (e.g., playing musical instruments, volunteering to take care of animals, genealogy work).
Take some time right now to write down 10 – 20 ideas of different skills and talents you have.

After you’re done, let’s take a look at an example of this in action. Maybe your list looks like:

Do a little PHP coding
Organize systems
Automate complex processes
Project manage
Create technical documents that can be understood by lay audiences
Lead a team
Now ask yourself: Which of these skills can solve a specific problem? Brainstorm those out. Don’t censor yourself — put everything down.

I could do some PHP coding, but I’m not the best.
I could help businesses automate and streamline their income-generating processes. Vague, but okay.
I could manage projects and lead teams towards deadlines/organizing. This is super vague, any 22-year-old college grad would say he could do the same, and it doesn’t take advantage of my specific skills. Skip this.
I could be a technical writer and help companies demystify their technical-support documents. I could even rewrite the technical portions of their websites to make them more comprehensible to normal people, especially companies in the consumer energy field. Very promising, especially since I follow a few of these companies online.
Each of these individually is a potentially viable freelance trade – can you pick one and do it? The answer should be YES/NO to each. Put “YES” if even remotely feasible.

PHP coding: YES
Automate systems: NO (too vague for me to know where to start)
Project manage: NO (too vague)
Technical writer: YES
Excellent. Now you have a list of skills that might potentially be profitable.

[NOTE: You can find remote technical writing jobs here.]

Optional: Combine skills together to make a more compelling, more niche offer.

You can often charge more and help clients more by packaging offers. In this case, it’s not very relevant, since technical writing and PHP coding are pretty different. But one of the people who helps on IWT pitched me to do video editing + marketing. Perfect fit. I hired him.

Next step: How can you prove to people that you’re knowledgeable enough for them to pay you?

The first thing I do when evaluating someone is look at their portfolio and past clients. At least half of potential hires don’t have this section. Easy solution! I move on to someone who does.

For our systems engineer, can he point to a PHP project he did on the side?
What about a sample of technical writing where he turned something very complicated into something totally palatable?
Last step: Start finding clients. With your offering in place, it’s time to find potential clients. Sure you could randomly print business cards or set up a blog. But before doing ANY of that you need to make sure you have something people want.

– Identify your clients. Who are they? What are their hopes and dreams? How old are they? What do they do? Are they married? How big is their company? (More on getting your first 3 clients here.)

– Reach out directly. Lots of people set up a Twitter account and wait for the world to come to them. DON’T DO THAT. Once you’ve identified your potential client, email them directly. Example email:

how to make money fast example conversation script 3
This email script has generated thousands of dollars for my students and can help you connect deeply with your potential clients and begin a relationship that can lead to your first paying client.

More resources that may help:

My Ultimate Guide to Digital Marketing
3 counterintuitive secrets about earning more
How to raise your hourly rate
And if you’re really serious about freelancing, make sure don’t miss out on my FREE Official Handbook to 6-Figure Freelancing with Zero Experience.

How to make $10,000+ THIS YEAR
1. Start an online business
Identify worthwhile ideas, and turn them into online businesses. There’s no question that if you really want to make more money, starting an online business is one of the best ways to do it. It’s also a great way to find freedom and self-worth.

When I first started out, I had way too many interests. Psychology! Writing a book! Marketing! Spicy salsa! OMG how can I turn all of those into a business?? Should I create a website on the psychology of spicy-salsa eating and how it relates to improving your business marketing?? OMG IS THAT IT?? AM I A GENIUS??

How to start an online business.

No, you are horrible. But that’s NORMAL when you’re starting out. Do you realize that identifying profitable business ideas is a skill? It’s not something you just dream about, then one day it falls from the sky. You learn the frameworks and psychology of deciding which ideas will work…and which ideas are not worth your time.

(As an example, this still happens, even now: Just recently, I spent 4 months working on a business idea with my team, spending a huge amount of time and money, until we ultimately concluded it wasn’t worth it. We shelved it away and I wrote an email to the team, telling them, “We can’t figure out how to make this work. We’ll re-look at it in 2 years.”)

You don’t have to spend all that time and money — but you will learn how to identify which ideas are worth pursuing.

I want to show you some examples of business ideas that seemed crazy…but actually, work. Here are just 3 examples of successful online businesses

True Wellth : Vegan health tips and recipes. Revenue through guides and courses.
Those are examples of how you can take your interests and turn them into an online business. And there are literally tens of thousands of other examples.

But there’s still one of my favorite methods to make money we haven’t covered…

The single best way to make money — automatically

How to automate your finances.

Most people will focus on the little things. Not you — if you do the above you will be ahead of 95% of your peers. Everything above is a repeatable SYSTEM and not a one-and-done tactic.

With that in mind, I put together a special bonus for you.

In this 11-minute video, I’ll show you how you can create the perfect system to automatically take care of your money every month.

This is the single best way to earn money, save money, and invest money into your Rich Life.

No more panicking if you have enough in your checking account to pay the bills — it’s my gift to you. This system took me 10 years to perfect and it’s being used by thousands of my students successfully.



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